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The Advantages of Registering on the Discover Card Login

Upon getting your credit card from Discover, mamman daura there are a variety of advantages to be gained by registering on the Discover card login. Before you go out and use your card, you should get to know about these advantages. It will be wise to capitalize on these rewards and options.

Once you get your card, you should log on to the internet and access the company’s website. Here, you get to register your card. All you will need is your user ID or your account number to register. After registering your account on their website, you can now gain access to the many perks.

One of these perks is the ability to see you current account summary. Here you get to see information on the card’s usage. This simply means that you never have to wait for the company to send you a paper copy. You can monitor your spending through this option.

If you have been their customer for more than a year, you can view statements from past years. Here, you get to monitor and compare your spending. You also get to see information on what you spent in the past if ever there is a need for it.

Another convenient option is the ability to pay bills online. This simply means that you never have to go to business centers just to pay your bills. All you will need is a PC or mobile phone with internet access. This will definitely save you a lot of time and the cost of travel. You can bills from anywhere at any time.

You also gain access to investments, savings, student loans, gift cards, and so much more. There are so many things that you will truly find useful. These are the advantages of registering on the Discover card login.

The author is a freelance writer, certified Odesk and Scriptlance Provider.


There Is No Unemployment in Nigeria

Nigeria, said to be giant of Africa and with a robust population of over 150 million, mamman daura can boast of bountiful supply of human resources, both skilled and unskilled, made up of men and women, account for the capital base of the nation. However, it would be pertinent to note that the number of skilled but idle far outweighs the unskilled and working (Rotimi Ige, Tribune Newspaper; Tuesday 6th July, 2010. ). The above cited work represents the view of most Nigerian populace on Nigeria and the level of unemployment in its economy. Before we will divulge more into the discourse, let us know what the concept ‘unemployment’ connotes. Ewa Udu and Agu (2000) define unemployment as a situation in which persons capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment.

Unemployment could be seasonal, frictional, internationally transmitted or structural. Seasonal unemployment occurs in industries that are seasonal in nature. Such industries engage labour temporarily during the peak periods and lay them off in the off-peak seasons. Again frictional unemployment exists when particular occupation has surplus workers in one part of the country while spaces for similar jobs are very much available and are not filled in other geographical locations of the same country. Poor knowledge of the existence of job opportunity elsewhere and labour immobility are the major factor that give rise to this type of unemployment. Moreover, in export-oriented industries, if demand in the industries falls off due to deterioration of trade of the importing country, most workers in the industries will be laid off. Sometimes, there may be changes in the pattern of aggregate demand and in the techniques of in the industry. When this occurs in an adverse way, some workers may be affected and they will be retrenched. This is termed structural unemployment.

In 2006, the rate of unemployment was only 2. 9%. It rose to an outrageous rate of 5. 8% in 2007. Thereafter, it fell slightly to 4. 9% in 2008. Since then, it remained static at that level till the present 2010 (CIA World Factbook). These statistics do not portray Nigerian economy in the positive as regards employment of human resources because in a country like Britain, 2% rate of unemployment of the labour force is considered very high. Recent release by the National Bureau of Statistics reports that over 20 million graduates are unemployed in Nigeria. A casual visit to any center where employment aptitude test is being conducted will show one the exact level of unemployment in this country. The test conducted by WAMCO Consulting Firm on behalf of one Dutch company last year witnessed more than 30 thousand candidates. Another test conducted by the same firm on behalf of Honeywell recorded more number.

These candidates were only the ones that met the screening criteria (ie 2nd Class Upper), am not talking about those that applied but were rejected. When most banks conducted their own tests, security men (illiterates) were used to drive graduates up and down. Some were flogged, maltreated and humiliated; just because they needed some job. One hardly passes ten people on the road without coming across at least one unemployed graduate. Some of these graduates have migrated round all the cities of Nigeria in search of jobs; all to no avail. They have moved from Lagos to Port-Harcourt, to Kaduna, to Kano, to Onitsha and all other places not worthy of mentioning.

This socio-economic problem of unemployment can be attributed to many and varied causes. Some of the conspicuous roots of the problem include population, academic curriculum, choice of course of study, laziness, greed, government policies, employment discrimination and government poor implementation of its employment policies.

Nigeria is the most populated black nation of world. The last conducted census put the figure at over one hundred and fifty million. In this great number, more than 50% are in the labour force of the country. What this means is that there will be serious drag for the little available openings of job opportunities available. This offers the answer to the reason why more than thirty thousand Nigerian graduates turn out for a job aptitude test that will not take up to twenty candidates.

More so, another major cause of unemployment in this country is the education system and the type of curriculum they run. From primary school to the university, the curriculum is more of theory than practical. In the eighties, primary school pupils were asked to do crafts; molding objects, making baskets, carving works and other handiworks but today in public schools, they are asked to bring toilet tissues as craft while in private schools, they bring money in lieu of craft. So, after primary school, a holder of First School Leaving Certificate cannot do anything with his or her hand. That of post primary school is nothing to write home about. The students are taught only how to cram textbooks and nothing more. Once you are able to commit all the contents of Ababio, P. N.

Okeke and Modern Biology to memory, you are a bright and intelligent student. Nobody or no teacher cares whether you know their practical applications or not. Ours is Science without Technology; which is useless. All the old Commercial and Vocational Schools that offered vocational courses like catering, fashion and designing and culinary skills have all been turned into pure ordinary secondary schools in order to join the trend and not run the risk of being left behind.

All the graduates of these high schools have no place in economy because they don’t have any skill to offer for exchange. This trend takes the students into the university. The university is the worst because not only that it is theory based system but most lecturers are not even willing to give that theory. Students are taught computer science in the classroom without a single computer system. Most roadside mechanics are more skilful than most graduates of mechanical engineering who parade themselves as engineers. A final year Accounting student has never seen a real cash book except the hypothetical ones he sees in the textbook. How can a product of this kind of system be employable?

Choice of course of study is another factor that contributes much in the employment problems in Nigeria. Many parents tend to choose careers for their offsprings because they in love with a particular profession without considering whether those their children have penchant for such profession. Some people may like to be musicians or comedians but their parents will kick against that and force them into a discipline they have aversion for. At the end, when they come out of school, they cannot practice and thus remain unemployed. Again, due to JAMB and its related admission problems, some students end up studying what they didn’t intend studying initially. Many students started with Sciences but they ended up studying an Art course due to admission ‘wahala’. Nigeria is a developing economy. For that, not all disciplines are fully functional here. If you read such courses, you remain unemployed unless you have a godfather somewhere. I can still remember when one former president of Nigeria was addressing some national issues on Radio Nigeria and people were calling him to ask some questions. One guy called and told him that he graduated from the university and for four years he had not gotten a job. The president asked him what he read and he replied ‘Sociology’. The president gave a mirthless laugh and told him that all the money spent for training him was wasted. Although that professionalism is not so highly upheld in Nigeria, yet there are graduates of certain disciplines that cannot fit into Nigerian economy. The crude mentality of a greater percentage of Nigerians equally contributes to this. For instance, somebody who has some problems, obstacles or setbacks would rather go to a native doctor, pastor or prophet instead going to a psychologist.

More so, some graduates are lazy to work. They want easy life. They expect everything to come in a platter of gold. Most of them are looking for white collar jobs where they will just sit under an air conditioner, do little or nothing and get paid. They will keep looking for that type of job till eternity. A graduate was offered a job as a store keeper and he has the temerity to say that he won’t touch or arrange cartons. This means he is lazy and not yet ready to work. Some female graduates concentrate on posting their pictures to all the social networks, dating and match making websites on the internet to cast their bait and know if they can catch a big fish. Nobody wants to bear the cross before wearing the crown any longer.

Furthermore, some graduates are too greedy. Many of them don’t want to start from the scratch. They want to make it overnight. They thought that once one graduates from the university, he become super rich. Most of them only talk and discuss about the ‘big shots’ in the society without taking out time to read their biographies or at least go through their profiles. If they do that, they will find out that all those men and women have worked and served in various capacities; both low and high before arriving at their present positions. Immediately after graduation, the eyes of these graduates are set on Politics, Oil and Gas and Banking (when banking was doing well), ignoring other lesser sectors that are willing and ready to absorb them. They all want to ride fanciful latest cars after three months of their employment. This is utopia and mirage because such jobs are semi-nonexistent now. For that, most graduates will keep on waiting for them till kingdom come.

Again, there is a great discrimination and prejudice going on in the labour market now. Employers of labour are not helping matters at all. Some applicants are prejudiced against on the grounds of their sex, age, type of certificates and even tribe or ethnicity. Most office works can be done by both males and females alike; why the sex discrimination then? Why do we see an advert that goes like this “a young female accountant needed for immediate employment”? Does it mean that a male cannot do that job? Some job interviewers give jobs to ladies that are not qualified because they agreed to sleep or have slept with them; leaving behind the more qualified males. Females are equally being discriminated against but are mostly married women. Most engineering jobs that involves much field work and constant movement don’t usually consider women. Most new generation banks don’t consider married women. Some go the extent of getting the young ladies sign an undertaking that once they get married, their appointments are terminated. Age is another area for discrimination. Banks as well as other blue chip companies are mostly culprits of this offence. Most of them don’t accept any applicant that is above twenty-four years old. They need very young, beautiful and attractive ladies that they will push into the market for ‘corporate prostitution’. The young handsome guys are used to entice the sugar mummies to operate an account with them. . These young fellows are pushed back into labour market once they failed to meet up with the unrealistic targets given to them. The worst discrimination in the labour market is that of BSC/HND dichotomy. Many employers of labour discriminate against the HND holders in favour of their counterparts with BSC. Although that in the advert, they always write BSC or HND as the qualification needed but when it reaches to the actual job placement, the HND holders are jettisoned. Government equally has a hand in the creation of unemployment in the economy. Some government policies are highly detrimental to job creation in this country. Some graduates who couldn’t find jobs pick up motorcycles and become ‘okada’ riders. But some State Governments thwarted their efforts by laying a ban on okada riding. Many graduates want to go into the production of local beverages, cosmetics and other little items with little fund they garnered after service but they don’t have the money to register the products with appropriate government agencies like NAFDAC, SON etc. Some of them that succeeded in erecting a small scale manufacturing firms are being asphyxiated by huge and excess taxation. All these not withstanding, the government has initiated some policies and established some agencies that will help in addressing the issue of employment in Nigeria. Some government efforts towards achieving a high rate of employment in Nigeria include the establishment of Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity, institution of the Nigerian Director of Employment, initiating of National Poverty Eradication Programme and National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy.

Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity has a network of thirty-one Employment Exchanges and seventeen Professional and Executive Registries. Nigeria Directorate Of Employment has four specific programmes which are Vocational Skills Development, Rural Employment Promotion, Small Scale Enterprises and Special Works. National Poverty Eradication Programme has five initiatives which are as follows: Village Economic Development Solutions, In Care of the People, Community Economic Sensitization Scheme, Multi Partner Matching Funds and Score on Poverty. National Economic Empowerment Strategy is a Nigeria’s plan for prosperity. The government way of letting the people know how it plans to overcome the deep and pervasive obstacles to progress that the government and the people have identified. The greatest of the obstacles is unemployment.

In spite of all these institutions and programmes, the economy is yet to feel any appreciable impact on the area of employment. They all remain only fanciful drawings that are only achievable on the pages of the newspapers. NDE recently conducted a Graduate Attachment Programme Test in which more than a million graduates took part online. Finally, only 500 were accepted and trained. After the training, there were no openings where they could be fixed and the NDE Director, Mallam Abubakar Muhammed was begging the Nigeria Employers Consultative Association to help absorb the trainees as interns. Daily Sun of Wednesday, 21st July, 2010 reported thus “Minister of Finance, Mr. Olusegun Aganga has pledged the FG’s resolve to tackle unemployment in the country as he decried the 49. 9 percent unemployment rate in the urban centres across the country. NAPEP also lays much emphasis on private sector initiative as a sustainable poverty eradication initiative. Everything now boils down to the private sector; the government is not ready to rise up to its responsibility of providing employment for its citizens. All those government policies lack substance hence they are poorly executed.

This social and economic canker called unemployment has many disastrous consequences on the entire nation. It gives rise to social vices, mass exodus of some Nigerians to other countries, continuous economic instability, stagnant or decreased Gross Domestic Product etc.

Many youths who have endured the scourge of unemployment for a long period of time have decided to challenge their fate by picking up arms and become armed robbers, political thugs and kidnappers. Kidnapping has become a common exercise in Nigeria because youths are idle and devil finds work finds work for idle hands. Daily Sun of Friday 6th August, 2010 reported that one Mr. Silas Ifeanyi, a House of Representative aspirant was abducted on his way back to Onisha from his home town Nsukka. Mr. Ifeanyi was very surprised to find out that all his kidnappers were all graduates. Youths of Niger Delta turned to militancy because they don’t have reasonable and sustainable jobs. Even the post Amnesty policies that are meant to get them fixed into legitimate ventures in the economy are not being fully implemented as proposed. General election is fast approaching and so many unemployed graduates are ready to stake their lives just because they have no alternatives. Female unemployed graduates imbibe the spirit of the cliché “use what you have to get what you want”. Most of them have turned into full time prostitutes. Every romantic magazine and all dating websites have their names and fabricated profiles looking for hook ups.

Some debased themselves to the level of renting rooms in brothels or hanging in clubs and hotel premises for any available standing.

Many graduates have been unemployed for so many years that they have lost their self esteem and developed an inferiority complex. They are withdrawn from social gatherings and disassociate themselves from their mates who seem to be doing well economically. Sometimes, they even suffer stigmatization from friends and relatives. The family members who entrusted hopes in them that after their graduation, they will start benefiting from them are all disappointed.

Their parents are tired of feeding them and giving them pocket money even still after graduation. They are seen as utter social misfit. All these constitute emotional and psychological trauma for the unemployed youth.

Most of the internet and ATM scam are perpetrated by the unemployed graduates. Internet fraud uses online services to present solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to others connected with the scheme (WIKIPEDIA).

ATM scams are on the rise and the use of online information has made it one of the easier inter-net scams to pull off for any moderately technically con artist ( Why is internet and ATM scam on the rise? The answer is not far fetched. It is because of the high rate of unemployment in the country. Man must survive by hook or by crook, they say. This does not end here. This unemployment has led many youths into different forms of forgery.

Due to the fact that every employer needs people with some years of working experience, many unemployed graduates have started forging appointment letters, so that they may be considered. Due to the fact that those that didn’t take part in the NYSC programme are discriminated against in the labour market; those graduates that did part-time, sandwich or evening programmes go to the extent of forging NYSC discharge certificates or pay money to some illegal agents in order to be mobilized for the programme. Recently there was a report in the Punch Newspaper of Tuesday, August 3;2010 that 69 fake corps members were arrested in Nasarawa State. How much does a corps member earn that will entice somebody to involve himself in such a disgraceful act if not for hunger caused by unemployment? Some even fake recommendation letters from highly placed government officials in order to be considered for a job. The most annoying of all these frauds and scams are the ones pull by the so-called employment agents. These are cheer exploiters. These people knowing fully well that many people are desperate for jobs use it as an opportunity to cheat them. They go about the cities and towns of the country pasting posters advertising for non-existent jobs. Some even advertise on the pages of Newspapers. The unsuspecting and innocent job seekers always fall prey to these criminals. They extort money from applicants with the promise of linking them with mouth watering jobs. Eventually they will disappoint and aBSCond with their money.


Tee Shirts Are Hot Items for Post-Holiday Shopping

The holidays are over, but the post-holiday sales are spurring plenty of shopping activity. Trump 2020 T Shirt No matter what the occasion is, there is one failsafe, practical, sure to please gift – a tee shirt.

We all wear tee shirts. At some point in the week, we find ourselves in a tee shirt. For some, it’s at the gym or while exercising, or out to dinner, donning a nicely fitted tee shirt under a sport coat. Others find themselves in a really comfortable tee shirt, just lounging around on the weekend, sporting something that’s casual, easy, and clean. And for another crowd, a tee shirt is the best nightgown or pajamas money can buy.

Some tee shirts become mementos. They remind us of a certain trip or vacation, tease us that we were once young and in college in the class of 19XX, or make us feel good about participating in a walk a thon or corporate charity event.

But for the majority of tee shirt wearing folks today, it’s become the uniform of style. A solid color tee shirt goes well under just about anything. In an increasingly growing sector of the tee shirt market, custom designed tee shirts are becoming a fashion and personal statement.

Tee shirts are now available with raunchy or very controversial messages, sure to create a look of amazement and a few raised eyebrows from HR when you show up wearing an offensive tee shirt to a company party or a neighbor’s get together. Search cool t-shirts, filthy tee shorts, or music tee shirts for some examples. These can be fun and worth a good laugh or spark a heated discussion, but may not be suitable for all audiences.

Another emerging custom tee shirt category offers original works of art interpretations of the famous people, or Icons, of our times. Many companies offer them, and you can find your choice from searching on Google, Yahoo, MSN, AOL, or any search engine you choose. One such company is Icon Tees, who says, “Icon is about You, It’s about me, It’s about all of us…..There are no restrictions, just representations. Say what you want without speaking. Your body is your billboard.” Icon Tees offers 100% original, one of a kind designed tee shirts featuring icons of past and present. Their tee shirts include figures whose prominence ranges from the art world to the underworld and from biblical times to present day. They can be worn to the club, around campus, or just about anywhere.

No matter what the occasion, a tee shirt is a great gift. Here are the top 10 reasons why:

1. Tee shirts come in all shapes and sizes, so you can find one to fit any size, shape, style of person.

2. They are practical. We wear them and will get use out of them, whether in and around town or to bed – they get worn.

3. You can dress them up or down. With jeans or under a sport coat, tee shirts are always in style.

4. They can make a statement. Like Icon Tees says, “Say what you want without speaking.”

5. You can avoid insulting someone with a tee shirt gift. A diet book as a gift may earn you a slap or pair of jeans that are two sizes two small can really ruin a romantic evening.

6. Tee shirts are easy to order and wrap. Click away, then tuck in a box, throw into a bag, or just cover with some paper. This is a wrap job any shopper can do.

7. You can start your own trend with a tee shirt. Who knows? It may become so popular that even Donald Trump may come out with his own tee shirt line.

8. Online Etailers offer original designs with images, phrases, statements, artwork, or even icons like Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Lee, Notorious BIG, Frank Sinatra, Madonna, Marilyn Monroe, Kurt Cobain, Jesus Christ, Run DMC, John Gotti, and Mohammed Ali that will suit any age or taste.

9. They are really affordable and a great value for the money. And if it’s a good tee shirt, it will earn the wearer a compliment – and that will put you in their good graces for another year.

10. Tee shirts are just cool….

So if you are out there looking for a great post holiday, birthday, or just because gift (or if you need a little something to go with that new pair of jeans), go online and click away. Tee Shirts are always a great gift, no matter what the shopping occasion.


Find a Good Online Casino For Yourself

Online casino appears to be the most alluring and enticing option in the modern day gambling scene. Agen QQ Online When you look for the ideal way to play some of the favorite casino games, the online betting sites comes up as the most favorite option for playing with convenience and ease.

Today, online casino gambling offers you a number of popular games that you would like to play and at the same time earn a lot of money. However, it often becomes difficult to involve with the best sites to enjoy online gambling.

If you browse through the internet, you will come across a lot of online casino sites offering a range of gaming options for their players. It is a fact that these days you will also find a number of rogue casino sites as well. Many a times, the number of rogue casinos surpass the total number of the good ones. This is where you have to ensure to select a right site to get started with your game.

With the presence of a large number of online casino sites, it often becomes difficult to select the right site. Here comes certain important points that you should consider before selecting any particular site:

Online Casino Authorization: Currently, most online casino sites include a Seal of Approval issued by the concerned authority. E-COGRA is one such legal entity that offers authorization to most internet casinos considering their individual functioning and other features given on offer for players. Additionally, online casinos operating in different countries require authorization of the government under its area of operation. For more assistance, you can check out different Internet forums and other recognizable portals on gambling to gather information about the credibility of the site.

Online Casino Games on offer: The next most important thing to consider while finding a good casino is to look for the different games on offer. Choose a site that offer your favorite online betting games. It may be slot machines, poker, roulette, baccarat or something else. With the availability of the number of games, it becomes easier for you to select one and start playing. The presence of a range of games do not make you feel bored at any time.

Online Bonuses and promotions: When you look for online casino gaming sites, one thing that you should look for is good sign up bonuses. The welcome or sign up bonuses form to be the best attraction of any online gambling site. It forms as a basic incentive from where players can make more money. With the sign up bonuses, you can look for the ones that might have seen difficult for you to earn at some point of time.

Special games and tournaments Online: This is another factor that players should consider when looking for good online casino to play. These days casino online betting brings you a number of opportunities to make use and to earn more. Try and find those online betting sites that offer free buy ins, special bonuses and great competitions together with the games.

Casino Payouts Online: When you select to play in an online casino site that pays you well, you should always look for something extra on offer. Bonuses are not all that are offered online, you will get good number of jackpots including massive payouts.

These are some of the important things that you require to check out before joining an online casino. To sum up, ensure to select a legitimate site and ensure a fair play in return.


The Real Secret To Freelance Success

I can tell you from experience that the first thing that goes through your mind as a new freelancer is “OK, freelance jobs online now how much am I going to make this month?” I can probably even safely say that this thought passes by nearly every freelancer just starting out.

Now, three years later, I can tell you that if you focus solely on the money part of running your own freelance business, you will fail. Focusing on money, only, takes the attention away from your clients who need the real attention from your freelance business.

I’ll tell you a quick story of how I obtained one of my best clients. I normally use the freelance work exchange, Elance, to seek out projects as a programmer. I encountered one for which I placed a bid and then noticed in the description of the project that he was from a town in California which I happened to have stayed at one day. I decided I would make a rather flattering comment about it in my bid.

This client of mine admitted to me that my bid was not the lowest, nor were my qualifications the best compared with other bids. He chose me, however, simply because he had the gut instinct that I was reliable and honest, but also I took that first step in “breaking the ice” with him. This was three years ago and still, to the day, he provides continuous business for which I am grateful.

Shortly after starting to work with this client, I realized that my approach to gaining projects and a resulting salary depended on creating relationships with my clients. This was especially important since I have not seen most of them face to face. It is easy to become anonymous drone to your clients and vice versa if the only interaction between you and them is strictly business talk.

Guess what? That was the magic formula for being a success in freelance. Ever since I have always built relationships with my steady clients and business couldn’t be better. All it takes, too, is just a few simple things. First, be genuine and honest with your client (should be a no-brainer). Second, get to know your clients by asking questions on where they live, what they do, etc. It doesn’t have to be too personal, but just get them to open up a bit.

Third, and most important, give them the best service you can and if they are not satisfied, make sure they are. Focusing on these three things will not only make your freelance business worthwhile, your income will dramatically rise without ever having to think about it.

One other side to developing business relationships with clients is that you, the freelancer, have a less likely chance of working for a undesirable client. When there is a trusting business relationship, then it is very difficult for either side to “screw over” the other. Also, if you happen to encounter a client who seems cold and not very open to the business relationship then this is a clear sign not to work with him or her. A difficult client is often the freelancer’s worst nightmare.

It is especially hard this day and age where the internet can bring anonymity between freeelancer and client, however, any attempts made to develop business relationships with your clients is the same as writing your own checks. So why not do it?

By Johnny Spence


The Game of Draw Poker – A Brief History

In many ways, the game epitomizes the raw bone tenacity of the American spirit that drove the western movement from the Mississippi River in the 1800’s. Life on the frontier was harsh, nagapoker hazardous and full of risks – the pioneers were literally gambling on their lives each day. To both survive in the untamed west and to win at draw poker a man had to be skillful at what he did and count on lady luck to smile on him. He had to closely watch his adversaries and at times bluff his way out of a situation. The results of his actions could prove very profitable or he could lose it all, sometimes even his life. Draw poker then was a natural choice for the men of the American west who were used to risking it all.

The game was the result of an evolutionary process that started when poker was first took shape in America early in the nineteenth-century. Just when and where it was first played is subject to a continuing debate among historians, as is the game’s origins. Several postulations attribute the game’s lineage to a French game called “poque” or possibly to a German game known as “pochspiel.” British historians state that the game was a direct descendent of the English card game of “brag.” Still other researchers claim that poker evolved from a sixteen-century Persian card game called “as nas” that was played with a twenty-five-card deck containing five suites and has rules similar to five-card stud poker. Since exact documentation of poker’s early history is impossible to determine its inception will probably remain a mystery.

Poker is thought to have started in America sometime in the early 1800’s, possibly in saloons of New Orleans. From there it spread up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers by way of the commercial steam boat traffic. Then as the wagon trains and railroads pushed the frontier west, poker continued to gain popularity with the early adventurers. An English actor, Joseph Crowell, recorded seeing poker being played on the riverboats in his diary of 1829 and later in his 1844 book, Thirty Years Passed Among the Players in England and America. A reformed gambler by the name of Jonathan H. Green wrote about early poker in his book, Exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling that was published in 1843. Both men described an early version of poker that was played with a twenty-card deck (A-K-Q-J-10). Each of four players was dealt five cards and bets were placed on these five original cards without discards or draws. When the betting was over the owner of the best hand won the pot – in the order of one pair, two pair, triplets, full house (one pair and a triple), and four of a kind. Due to the limits of a twenty-card deck there was only a single round of betting before the winning hand was declared and this made bluffing a much more difficult maneuver.

As the game evolved it moved to a thirty-two card deck and then eventually to the standard “French deck” of fifty-two cards. Sometime in the mid-1830’s straights and flushes were introduced as winning hands. A few years later draw poker was born and started making the rounds of gambling halls in the west. The first mention of draw poker appeared in the American edition of Bohn’s New Handbook of Games in 1850. In that same year, wild cards were introduced to poker play.

With these enhancements draw poker and another version called stud poker became the card games of choice among the soldiers on both sides of the Civil War. Originally called, “stud horse” poker, the game was played around the campfires between battles and was a close rival to draw poker in popularity. Both versions are conducive to bluffing but in stud poker, you are not allowed to draw or discard cards. Rather, some of the cards are dealt face down and some face up to the player so that everyone at the table knows a few of the cards being held by each player. Betting occurs after each new face up card is dealt and after the last face down card is dealt. The first mention of stud poker appeared in the American Hoyle of 1864.

In draw poker all the cards are dealt face down to the players and after all of the cards have been dealt there is a round of betting. Then players may discard any number of cards and receive the same amount of cards from the dealer. When all the players have completed their hands there is another round of betting before the winner is declared. Later, in 1870, jackpot poker was introduced in an attempt to prevent players with poor hands from being drawn into a pot that was impossible to win. In this version, players were required to have jacks or better to open betting. If a player did not possess the minimum to play, they were required to fold and lose their ante.

The first recorded set of rules for playing draw poker came about when Robert C. Scheneck, a United States ambassador to Great Britain, introduced the game to the members of Queen Victoria’s court at a party in 1872. Fascinated with the new game the royalty asked Scheneck to jot down the rules of the game so they could play the game after he returned to America. He obliged and his handwritten rules of play were then printed by the queen’s staff for future parties. Later, without his permission or that of the queen’s court, his set of rules were published as a small booklet and sold to the masses. Entitled, A Flowery Path to Wealth: The Game of Draw Poker as Taught to the English Aristocracy, the pamphlet was a major hit with the British people who quite often referred to the game as “Scheneck’s poker”. Scheneck, who had served as general under President Lincoln, was embarrassed by the public release of his rules that he had been assured would be used privately by queen’s court.

John W. Keller, an American, included Scheneck’s rules for draw poker in his own book, The Game of Draw Poker, published in 1887. In addition, he used a portion of a letter written by Scheneck to a political friend, Thomas L. Young; to describe how the ambassador had unwittingly became party to the publication of the first set of rules for the game.

Keller’s book provided a more detailed account of the rules and variations to the game as well as a section on progressive poker, which he described as being “The latest development of draw poker… and doubtless owes its origin to the popularity of progressive euchre.” Contrary to Keller’s comments, progressive poker never caught the attention of American gamblers and its play quickly faded from the gaming scene.

Throughout the book, Keller refers to a noted mathematician, “Dr. Pole” who provided the probability and odds for draw poker hands. At the end of the book, he summarizes Pole’s calculations in a series of probability tables, which have stood the test of time. According to Dr. Poe’s figures, there is an astounding 2,598,960 possible hands in draw poker.

Since Keller’s book was published in 1887, there have been a large number of books printed on the subject of draw poker but few have been as clear and concise on the rules and the strategy of the game. His sage advice to “Study your adversaries carefully; watch the game closely; be patient in adversity and calm in prosperity,” seems right in keeping with the old gambler’s adage of knowing “when to hold ’em and when to fold ’em.”


Business Web Marketing 101: From Concept to Web Presence Creation

Whether you have an existing business or you are planning to start a new business, Conception site web the business of web marketing should be high on your list of priorities. The Internet as we know it is vast, ubiquitous and, thanks to mobile computing, it’s in everyone’s pockets. If your business isn’t marketing its services on the web, you are likely losing out on serious revenue. The time to market your business online is now. The following is a short checklist that will help you get your business Internet marketing presence up and running quickly.

Market Research

Without the proper market research, even the most well-thought out business web marketing strategy will likely fail. A business must know its audience through and through and, furthermore, there must be a demand for the brand or the products and services that brand promotes. In the past, the business of marketing was much more difficult. To conduct the proper search, you would have to hire focus groups and design polls in order to put a finger on the pulse of your future prospects. Today, we have social media which makes the entire business of web marketing much easier.

Social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, YouTube and popular online forums are great ways to get into the minds and aspirations of your prospects and customers. The business of web marketing requires you to get to know the men and women you will be marketing to. What better way to get to know your prospects and customers than by monitoring their conversations or even engaging them directly?

Thanks to the tools most people use to keep in contact with friends, family and (good for us) their favorite businesses, products and services, we now have a window into the lives of the very people we will be marketing to. What a time to be alive as a business-to-business or business-to-consumer Internet marketer.

Other Research

To effectively market a web presence online, you must conduct the proper keyword research. Knowing which keywords to use in your marketing materials will help you rank higher in the search engines thanks to search engine optimization (SEO). The proper keywords will also be used in future PPC (pay-per-click) campaigns, which are essential for maximizing your business web marketing efforts.

Google AdWords is one of the most widely used PPC platforms and there is a built in keyword research tool that is free to use. Business web marketing experts from all over the world use this tool to find those keywords that are highly searched for, but that offer the least amount of competition. By competition, we are referring to websites and other online materials that may be using those same keywords in an attempt to garner attention from the search engines through SEO.

Competitor Research

Notice how we haven’t even begun to discuss a website or even graphics, which is typically where the beginner wants to begin. Right now we are merely discussing concepts, ideas and the concepts and ideas that your customers will go gaga for. This requires extensive research, both market and keyword, but it also requires you to research your direct competitors.

When you find the keywords that you plan to use in your business web marketing campaigns, start looking those keyword terms up using Google or similar search engine. Start researching the first few listings that each term yields. These are the websites and pages created by your direct competition. It is recommended that you take what works from these sites and make them better. Now you are ready to market your small business with a website and other materials.

Web Design and Development

Many people think that the business of marketing relies mostly on sight. It’s the images that count, a business-to-business Internet marketing beginner might say. That online marketer might have a point to a degree. The design of your site does matter, as do the colors. Certain colors have been known to elicit certain responses in people and if your website looks like trash, most people aren’t going to bother to stick around.

That being said, your business web marketing presence does not need to be flashy or laden with the best videogame-like graphics. Your website should be simple, pleasing to the eye and the entire presence should mesh together into one cohesive element.

If you are not artistic or if you don’t know PHP from HTML, it’s recommended that you hire someone to do this part for you. While there are many do-it-yourself open source web design platforms online, if you don’t know what you’re doing it’s usually going to show. Don’t skimp on the design. Let the experts do it for you and wow your audience with a design that flows with your overall message.


A business web marketing site should be filled with content that is useful, well-produced and to-the-point. Nobody wants to read a website filled with a lot of fluff, nor does anyone want to read one that is filled with grammar and spelling mistakes. Keep your information short and sweet, go for shorter paragraphs as opposed to longer ones and always have a call-to-action.


A Course in Miracles (ACIM): The Ego and Forgiveness

Question: What is the role of forgiveness in A Course in Miracles?

Answer: Forgiveness in A Course in Miracles is really correction of the mind. acim From the metaphysical aspect, you have a split mind. One side of the split mind is the ego (wrong mind). The other side is the Holy Spirit (right mind) which produces correction, also known as forgiveness. In this split mind scenario, you still retain your decision maker – observer and this allows you to choose between the split mind portions. You have never lost it. If you choose judgment, you are still choosing. Therefore, it is not hidden, but still being used. The ego does not want you to know this because choosing against the ego’s judgments is death to it.

When we talk about forgiveness, we are not speaking of forgiveness as outlined by the ego world. This is a different way of thinking and can be difficult to initially grasp. Forgiveness, in this sense, is forgiveness for salvation by choosing the correction of the Holy Spirit (right mind) to correct the errors of the ego (wrong mind). How does one do this? The main way is by being willing to give up the ego’s judgments and thought forms in favor of correction (forgiveness).

Why would you do this? At some point in life, everyone has had enough of the way their life is heading and feels the frustration in how this world operates. So what do they do? They begin asking themselves questions and seeking answers for the truth, such as, who they are and why they are here. The answer is simple: Forgiveness, also known as correction of the mind. That is your purpose in life and why you are here.

On a deep unconscious level, this solution of forgiveness was placed in the mind at the time of the original separation from God. Everyone has the ability to choose from either side. Your life won’t change until you change your internal Teacher to the Holy Spirit (right mind).

Question: How do I determine what the ego is in my life?

Answer: First, one has to study what the ego is, understand it, and then be able to look back upon it without fear or guilt. The ego is a thought system based upon a series of judgments whose very foundation is fear. This goes back to the original separation and is characterized by hate, anger, blame, grievances, judgment, self-interest, specialness, depression, projections, war, death, sin, fear, guilt, and “forgiveness-to-destroy”, just to name a few. If you honestly look around, you will observe that this world is based on a kill or be killed thought system. That is the ego. It is always one or the other and never both. What is causing difficulties in life, and in this world, is that you choose to listen to the ego’s judgments about everything and they are fear-based judgments.

A Course in Miracles teaches us that according to the mind you choose from, you will see the corresponding effect. If you choose the judgments of the ego as your cause, your effect will be from that side. By choosing the Holy Spirit (right mind) as the cause, the negative effects of the ego are undone and the true effect is received: Correction (forgiveness). By changing your internal Teacher as cause, you will see a different effect for the result. All it takes is a little willingness to learn how to do this and then following up by doing the work of choosing to turn over judgments for correction (forgiveness) from the Holy Spirit (right mind). Make no mistake: This is death to the ego!

Conclusion: The ego is a vindictive and vicious thought system that aims to keep you stuck in this world by increasing your separation from everyone else using judgment. You cannot see Heaven from judgment. If you listen to the judgments of the ego, your life is a reflection of those judgments; however, if you listen with the Holy Spirit (right mind) and choose forgiveness by turning over those judgments, all the consequences of the ego (wrong mind) choices are undone. You do this by willing to completely give up the ego on that subject matter and choose another way. Turn it over! It all comes down to the choice of the internal Teacher. You cannot be a slave to two masters.

Forgiveness is summed up simply as this: Choose a different internal Teacher for the correction of the mind. God does not recognize judgment or that any error was ever made. To enter the Kingdom, your mind must be returned to true perception which is another name for peace.


A Course In Miracles

A Course in Miracles is so pure, so wonderful, a course in miracles so powerful, and so much more spiritually advanced than any other piece of the world’s literature (past and present), that you have to actually experience it to believe it. But those whose minds are too attached to worldly thoughts, and lack the underlying thirst for true spiritual knowledge that is necessary for its understanding, will likely not comprehend a single whole page. That is not because A Course in Miracles is confusing – on the contrary its principles are remarkably simple – but rather because it is the nature of spiritual knowledge that those who are not ready to understand it, simply cannot understand it. As stated in the Bible, at the beginning of the book of John: “The light shineth in darkness, and darkness comprehended it not”.

Ever since I first became aware of the majestic and awe-inspiring presence of God, I have enjoyed reading many wonderful spiritual works like the Bible (my favorite parts are the Sermon on the Mount and Psalms), the Bhagavad-Gita, the Upanishads, the Koran and the poetry of Kabir and Rumi. None of them come close to the greatness of a Course in Miracles. Reading it with an open mind and heart, your fears and troubles wash away. You become aware of a marvelous love deep within you – deeper than anything you knew before. The future begins to seem so bright for you and your loved ones. You feel love for everyone including those you previously have tried to leave excluded. These experiences are very powerful and at times throw you off balance a little, but it is worth it: A Course in Miracles introduces you to a love so peaceful, so strong and so universal – you will wonder how so many of the world’s religions, whose aim is supposedly a similar experience, got so off track.

I would like to say here to any Christian who feels that his church’s teachings do not truly satisfy his thirst to know a kind, merciful and loving God, but is somewhat afraid to read the Course because of others’ claims that it is inconsistent with “true” Christianity: Don’t worry! I have read the gospels many times and I assure you that a Course in Miracles is completely consistent with Jesus’ teachings while he was on earth. Don’t fear the fanatical defenders of exclusionist dogma – these poor people think themselves to be the only carriers of Jesus’ message, and the only ones worthy of his blessings, while all other will go to hell. A Course in Miracles reflects Jesus’ true message: unconditional love for *all people*. While he was on earth, Jesus said to judge a tree by its fruit. So give it a try and see how the fruits that ripen in your life taste. If they taste bad, you can abandon A Course in Miracles. But if they taste as sweet as mine do, and the millions of other true seekers who have found A Course in Miracles to be nothing less than a heavenly treasure, then congratulations – and may your heart always be abundantly filled with peaceful, loving joy.

Review by Pradeep Egri
Toronto, ON Canada


Situs Judi Online Agen Slot Joker123 Deposit Pulsa

The major online poker sites offer varying features to entice new players. slot online feature is to supply tournaments called satellites by which the winners gain entry to real-life poker tournaments. it had been through one such tournament on PokerStars that Chris Moneymaker won his entry to the 2003 World Series of Poker. slot online He went on to win the most event, causing shock within the poker world, and beginning the poker boom. The 2004 World Series featured 3 times as many players as in 2003. a minimum of four players within the WSOP final table won their entry through a web cardroom. Like Moneymaker, 2004 winner Greg Raymer also won his entry at the PokerStars online cardroom.


raditional (or “brick and mortar”, B&M, live, land-based) venues for enjoying poker, like casinos and poker rooms, could also be intimidating for novice players and are often located in geographically disparate locations. Also, brick and mortar casinos are reluctant to market poker because it’s difficult for them to take advantage of it. Though the rake, or time charge, of traditional casinos is usually high, the chance costs of running a poker room are even higher. Brick and mortar casinos often make far more money by removing poker rooms and adding more slot machines. for instance , figures from the Gaming firm Joseph Eve estimate that poker accounts for 1% of brick and mortar casino revenues.


Online venues, against this , are dramatically cheaper because they need much smaller overhead costs. for instance , adding another table doesn’t take up valuable space love it would for a brick and mortar casino. Online poker rooms also allow the players to play for low stakes (as low as 1¢/2¢) and sometimes offer poker freeroll tournaments (where there’s no entry fee), attracting beginners and/or less wealthy clientele.


Online venues could also be more susceptible to certain sorts of fraud, especially collusion between players. However, they need collusion detection abilities that don’t exist in brick and mortar casinos. for instance , online poker room security employees can check out the hand history of the cards previously played by any player on the location , making patterns of behavior easier to detect than during a casino where colluding players can simply fold their hands without anyone ever knowing the strength of their holding. Online poker rooms also check players’ IP addresses so as to stop players at an equivalent household or at known open proxy servers from playing on an equivalent tables. Digital device fingerprinting also allows poker sites to acknowledge and block players who create new accounts in attempts to bypass prior account bans, restrictions and closures.